Bladder cancer affects twice as many men as women in the UK. It is the fourth most common cancer in men and the tenth most common in women. Each year, there are over 10,600 new cases.
Bladder cancer is most common in people over 50. It affects the inner lining of the bladder and develops slowly. As it grows, it may spread to other organs near the bladder
Cancers that start in the bone are rare. There are around 500 new cases in the UK each year. They are different from cancers that develop at other sites in the body and spread to the bones later on.
Bone cancer develops from cells in the bone. A rarer type can start in cartilage, the firm connective tissue that surrounds and cushions many joints. If the cancer is not treated, cancer cells from the original site may break away and spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, other bones, or other internal organs
Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women in this country. Each year, there are over 41,000 new cases in the UK. This cancer accounts for almost one in three of all cancer cases in women, and the lifetime risk for breast cancer in women is one in nine.
The cancer develops in the milk-producing glands in the breast, or in the passages or ducts that deliver milk to the nipples. Some breast cancers may spread into the surrounding tissue, and can spread to other parts of the body.
Brain tumours are not very common, and unlike many other cancers, does not usually spread to other parts of the body. It accounts for less than 2% of all new cancers diagnosed in the UK.
Each year, there are over 2,500 new cases of brain cancer in men, and over 1,900 cases in women. In the UK, about 300 children are diagnosed with a brain tumour each year.
The brain is a soft spongy mass of nerve cells and supporting tissue. It controls every physiological system in the body and is responsible for our thoughts, language and emotions.
In the brain, any abnormal growth puts pressure on sensitive structures and may impair their function.
Myeloma develops from cells within the bone marrow called plasma cells. Plasma cells produce proteins called antibodies, which help to fight infection. In myeloma, a single plasma cell develops faults and multiplies out of control. This makes the immune system much less effective at fighting infection.
Myeloma cells produce excessive amounts of a single type of antibody, which is known as paraprotein, or monoclonal spike.
Myeloma usually develops at a number of different sites within the body. This cancer is therefore called multiple myeloma. The most common sites for multiple myeloma are the pelvis, spine, rib cage, skull, shoulders and hips.
Cervical cancer develops from cells lining the cervix, which is the canal that connects the uterus to the vagina. During childbirth, the baby passes through this canal.
Cervical cancer takes time to develop. There is usually a period when some of the cells lining the cervix develop abnormal changes but are not yet cancerous – these can give rise to cervical cancer later on. Doctors can pick up these changes through screening, and a simple treatment can prevent cancer developing.
Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a fairly rare type of cancer, with just over 1,400 new cases in the UK every year. It is most common in people in their 20s and 30s.
This disease belongs to a group of cancers known as lymphomas. Lymphomas are cancers that develop from cells of the lymphatic system. This system helps to protect the body against infections.There are two main types of lymphoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Hodgkin’s lymphoma is named after Thomas Hodgkin, the doctor who first described it. It makes up less than one in five cases of lymphoma. The cancer cells in Hodgkin’s lymphoma look different under a microscope from cells of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
In the majority of cases, Hodgkin’s lymphoma can be cured with modern treatments, particularly if the disease is in its early stages.
If the cancer is not treated, cancer cells may break away and spread to other parts of the lymphatic system. If the cancer cells get into the blood stream, they can spread to almost any organ in the body, including the liver, lungs, brain and spine.
There are two main types of skin cancer, melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer.
Melanoma (also known as malignant melanoma) is a cancer that develops from cells called melanocytes, which are found in the outer layer of our skin.
Melanocytes produce melanin, a pigment that helps protect the deeper layers of our skin from the harmful effects of the sun. This pigment appears as a suntan, which is a sign of damaged skin.Melanomas often start in moles, but they can also develop elsewhere on the skin. In rare cases, melanomas can occur in the eye, under the fingernails, or in other parts of the body not usually exposed to the sun.
Although Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer it differs from other types of cancer in the way it develops. Unlike most cancers, which start in one place and may then spread around the body, KS can appear in several parts of the body at the same time. The most common site for KS is on the skin but it may also affect internal organs, particularly the lymph nodes, the lungs and parts of the digestive system.
KS has been shown to be associated with a virus called Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV8) and can affect people with a weakened immune system, including people with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS.
SOFT TISSUE SARCOMA’S
Soft tissue sarcomas are rare, and only 1,300 or so people a year in the UK will develop a sarcoma. Sarcomas are cancers that develop from cells in the soft, supporting tissues of the body. They can occur in muscle, fat, blood vessels or in any of the other tissues that support, surround and protect the organs of the body. The soft tissues of the body are also known as the mesenchyma, and so sometimes sarcomas are called mesenchymal tumours. Some types of sarcoma occur in children, teenagers and young adults, but generally sarcomas are more likely to develop in people over the age of 30.
Some sarcomas, such as osteosarcoma, start in bone. These grow and develop differently and are treated differently from soft tissue sarcomas.
Neuroendocrine tumours are rare. They start in neuroendocrine cells – these are specialised nerve cells that produce hormones. Neuroendocrine cells are part of the endocrine system, which is a network of glands in the body. The glands produce hormones.
Hormones control many of the body’s functions by controlling the levels of particular chemicals and fluids in the body, and they help us respond to changes in our environment.
Neuroendocrine tumours occur most commonly in the digestive system but can occur in other parts of the body. They can be non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant).
Some neuroendocrine tumors produce hormones which can cause particular symptoms, such as diarrhoea, flushing of the skin and wheezing. Tumors that produce hormones are called functioning (hormone-secreting). Tumors that don’t produce hormones are known as non-functioning (non-hormone secreting).
Mesothelioma (pronounced mee-so-thee-lee-oma) is a cancer of the mesothelium. The mesothelium is a thin membrane that lines the chest and abdomen and surrounds the organs in these areas. The lining around the lungs is called the pleura and in the abdomen it is known as the peritoneum.Mesotheliomas are uncommon cancers, although they are becoming more frequent. Currently, about 1800 people in the UK are diagnosed with mesothelioma each year.Mesothelioma of the lining of the lungs (pleural mesothelioma) is much more common than mesothelioma in the peritoneum. For every person with peritoneal mesothelioma there will be about 12 people who have pleural mesothelioma.
Cancers of the bile duct
Cancers of the bile duct are rare in the Western world. There are approximately 600 new cholangiocarcinomas diagnosed each year in the UK.
The bile ducts are the tubes connecting the liver and gall bladder to the small intestine (small bowel). Bile is a fluid made by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. Its main function is to break down fats during their digestion in the small intestine. In people who have had their gall bladder removed, bile flows directly into the small intestine. The bile ducts and gall bladder are known as the biliary system.
Cancer is classified according to the type of cell from which it starts. Cancer of the biliary system almost always starts in a type of tissue called glandular tissue and is then known as adenocarcinoma.
If the cancer starts in the part of the bile ducts contained within the liver it is known as intra-hepatic. If it starts in the area of the bile ducts outside the liver it is known as extra-hepatic.
The nasopharynx is the area where the back of the nose turns to meet the upper section of the throat. The cancerous tumour usually originates at the curved part behind the nose or the post nasal space. As the tumour is situated close to critical structures of the brain, spinal cord and throat, nasopharyngeal cancer can cause many symptoms in its advanced stages.
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